Thursday, April 27, 2017

Volunteer Voices | Paul Eaves

Paul Eaves, Coldwater Crew Leader, Mississippi National River and Recreation Area

Almost 20 years ago, I was part of a land occupation to protect four sacred oaks. When the chainsaws came and finally cut the oaks down, I clearly heard the trees say, “It’s about the spring.”

Those tree spoken words began my relationship with Coldwater Spring. At that time, the spring and its lands exuded a beautiful wildness hidden behind fences and decaying buildings. I felt the magic of the spring and visited it weekly, creating a labyrinth, leaving offerings, and saying prayers to honor the spring. It was and continues to be a sacred space for me and many others.

Photo by Gene Zieman
My connection with Coldwater Spring evolved into my volunteer work with the National Park Service. Since the buildings came down, I have attended National Public Lands Days, Tuesday and Thursday work crews, and other habitat restoration events. I have participated in activities such as planting and watering trees, removing invasive buckthorn, and sowing prairie seeds in communion with other wondrous volunteers.

Each time I volunteer at Coldwater Spring, I experience my work as a prayer, an act of devotion to the spring and the lands surrounding it. It is also a great way to get a vigorous workout outdoors in a beautiful place. Most important to me, it is an opportunity to create an enchanting, vibrant prairie oak savanna that is a gift to future generations.

Tuesday, March 7, 2017

5 Reasons to Become a Volunteer Crew Leader

The evidence speaks for itself, there are myriad reasons you should volunteer for a cause that you care about. It’s good for your health, career, psychological well-being, and interpersonal relationships. 

But why should you become a volunteer crew leader for Mississippi National River and Recreation Area? Well, let me tell you...

Instagram-Ready Vistas

Photo by Erik Fremstad

One of the coolest parts about becoming a leader for our volunteer crews is being able to explore unique parts of this urban national park, giving you access to some of the most swoon-worthy views this park has to offer. Get ready to dazzle your Instagram followers and make all your Facebook friends green with envy.

Make New Friends

Photo by Ranger Gordon

Another great benefit to spending so much time working in this national park is that you’ll likely have unexpected encounters with urban wildlife. Mississippi National River and Recreation Area is part of a major flyway for migratory birds, providing tons of opportunities to get to know the different species. This national park is also home to freshwater mussels, river otters, and many pollinator species.

Inspire the Next Generation

Photo by Tom Matre

Engaging with young people and planting seeds (literally!) for the next generation of conservationists is without a doubt one of the most rewarding parts of being a volunteer crew leader with Mississippi National River and Recreation Area. Working alongside national park rangers, crew leaders help us host school groups to teach kids about this national treasure right in the Twin Cities and how they can get involved too!

Develop Your Leadership Skills

Photo by Tom Matre

Leading volunteer groups is not only fun and rewarding, it will help you become a better leader and generally become more confident in other aspects of your life. Not to mention, you’ll learn more about the different functions of the National Park Service and become an expert in your community about how our public lands are managed.

Connect With Your Community

Photo by Quinn Feller

Above all, becoming a volunteer crew leader is the right decision because of the lasting impact of your work. Bringing our diverse community together to create great things will result in a stronger, more engaged, and better connected community of park-goers for generations to come.

So what are you waiting for? Sign up to become a volunteer crew leader, and share your love of nature and the river with others! Contact Kathy Swenson to sign up for training and to get more information.

Thursday, February 2, 2017

Celebrating World Wetlands Day at Coldwater Spring

Alora K. Jones, Marketing and Communications Associate, Mississippi Park Connection

After last summer’s BioBlitz event, we all know that the wetlands at Coldwater Spring are faring much better than they once were. But how do they compare to others in the metro area?

Thanks to Hennepin County’s Wetland Health Evaluation Program (WHEP), we now have some answers. An ongoing project for the last twenty or so years, WHEP has worked with citizen scientists to collect data about the different organisms living in wetlands across the county. Made possible by over 90 volunteers who donated more than a thousand hours to the project, comparative data is now available! So here’s what we learned:

Of the eight natural wetlands at Coldwater Spring, two were included in the study: one adjacent to the springhouse and reservoir, the other just east of there toward the Mississippi River Trail. Both are doing great!

The first had shown the highest ranking in invertebrate score among those surveyed, meaning this wetland demonstrated a greater diversity of invertebrates, which is a key indicator for wetland health. The second, where the old library used to be circa Bureau of Mines, tied only with one wetland in Eden Prairie for highest vegetation score, meaning greater diversity in plant species.

Of course, conservation is not a contest. But it’s worth celebrating the fact that efforts to restore Coldwater Spring to its natural state have produced such results in just five short years. And we think that’s kind of a big deal.

Want to get involved with restoration at Coldwater Spring? Contact our volunteer coordinator for more information!

Mary Hammes

Tuesday, January 24, 2017

MISS Throwback: West Side Flats

Sandy Fuller, Education Volunteer, Mississippi National River and Recreation Area

MISS Throwback is a collaborative project in honor of the NPS Centennial. We asked volunteers to write about the last 100 years of the Mississippi River in the Twin Cities. This project was coordinated by Ranger Kathy and Centennial Volunteer Ambassador Quinn.

It’s 1916! Passover means it’s time for the annual spring floods from a swollen Mississippi River to force families to the upper levels of the simple plank homes on the West Side flats. Before the influx of Jewish refugees, fleeing the religious pogroms of the Russian czar during the late 1800’s, this low-lying area was sparsely settled. The new immigrants came with nothing. They used their skills to build shelters and then their ingenuity to create ways of earning a living by using the resources at hand: retrofitting items found in the local dumps, collecting rags and things they could recycle. They scraped together enough money to buy groceries for resale, or personal use if sales were slow. As fortunes improved, they moved on, making room for other families.

West Side flats during spring flood, St. Paul.
Photo credit: Minnesota Historical Society

When the river overflowed its banks, families moved belongings to the second floor, or loaded their stuff into flatboats until the river receded. If streets became impassable, stout boards became skyways from a second floor window to the neighbor next door. Sometimes during floods, so much sand was deposited that street level was above the ground floors of homes! Residents then built steps to go from the street down to the front doors. Despite the rigors of living in a flood prone area, Syrian refugees fleeing the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, and Mexican migrant workers found homes on the lower West Side. Eventually the West Side became the historic home of Minnesota's Latino population. Following the devastating flood of 1952, the lower flats community was forcibly relocated to "the Terrace" where residents thrived and subsequently made room for Hmong, Khmer, Somali and other new arrivals from around the globe.

Notes from the author about locations:

On the West Side, the "Flats" are the low areas near the river. Current uses include the industrial park, Holman Field, the greenfields that are being reclaimed from their former use for dumps and heavy industry, and the new housing/office developments along the river. The Robert Street bridge travels directly into the "flats." Plato and the railroad tracks are basically the southern boundary of the "Flats"

The Terrace is the area along Concord, that sits at a slightly higher elevation. Torre do San Miguel, Neighborhood House, Our Lady and the Del Sol business area are located here. This area houses most of the relocated "Flats" community and continues to be the home of newcomers. The Wabasha bridge connects the "Terrace" to St Paul proper.

Proceeding up the hill along Robert Street, State Street or Ohio Street, to the "Bluffs," this is the home of the original West Siders, before the influx of immigrant groups. The Smith Avenue bridge connects the "Bluffs" to the rest of St Paul.


Hoffman, William. Those Where the Days. St. Paul: North Central, 1957. Hoffman, William. West Side Story II. St Paul, MN, North Central, 1981 Rosenblum, Gene H. The Lost Jewish Community of the West Side Flats, 1882-1962. Chicago, IL: Arcadia, 1986.

Monday, December 12, 2016

Become a Minnesota Master Naturalist!

Alora K. Jones, Marketing and Communications Associate, Mississippi Park Connection

Are you ready to take your volunteering skills to the next level?
Become a master naturalist! Ranger Karen Katz from Mississippi National River and Recreation Area will be the lead instructor in this Minnesota Master Naturalist program at Fort Snelling State Park.

Offered by University of Minnesota Extension, the course will be held weekly between mid-March and –April, including two field trips, over a six-week period. The focus of the class will be “Big Woods, Big Rivers” – where the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers will serve as a classroom for this outdoor, experiential learning opportunity. 

As an individual, this course will give you a deeper understanding of how you can play an active role in facilitating and improving the connection between people and nature. As a volunteer, it will equip you as a leader on formal education programs like Take Me to the River and Big River Journey, which provide hands-on learning experiences for young people in Mississippi National River and Recreation Area.

Get to know the geology, plant and animal communities, hydrology, and history of this area from experts who know it best. Deepen your relationship with the natural world, and learn how you can help others build and strengthen their connections with the local treasures that exist right in our backyard.

This class will meet on Wednesdays from 9 am to 2:30 pm, between March 15 and April 19 at the Fort Snelling State Park visitor center. The course cost is $275, however scholarships are available. Click here to learn more.

Thursday, November 17, 2016

How Does #MissNPS #OptOutside?

Alora K. Jones, Marketing and Communications Associate, Mississippi Park Connection

Last year on Black Friday our friends at REI did something different - they shut the co-op’s doors and spent the day outside. This year they’re closing again and we’ve decided to opt outside with them by organizing a day of fun and exploring in our national park!

Join rangers from Mississippi National River and Recreation Area this Black Friday for a day of fun, family-friendly treasure hunting at Coldwater Spring! The day's activities will combine hiking, orienteering, and learning about the important connections between people and wildlife of the Mississippi River. Whichever path you choose, choose to opt outside with friends and family this year!

Even if we’re not working that day, don’t expect to see any of us at the mall on Black Friday. Here’s how just a few staff members are Opting Outside this year…

“Our family will spend the day exploring our local parks around Lake Johanna. We'll play tag on the playground, search for the three neighborhood turkeys, and play epic rounds of stomp rocket. We love fall and Opt Outside a great reminder to take advantage of our beloved parks and trails.” - Brian, Mississippi National River and Recreation Area

“I will be home in New Hampshire, visiting my family and introducing some college friends to the beautiful, rural place where I grew up. We will hike in the hills behind my house and hopefully make our way up to a nearby beaver pond-- a favorite spot from my childhood!” - Maya, Mississippi Park Connection

“My family plan is to #OptOutside by visiting a local park to search for discoveries along a forested trail, support my three-year old son's newfound love for binoculars by watching for migrating birds, and probably visit a playground or two.” - Allie, Mississippi National River and Recreation Area

“I’m really excited to go to Colorado with my family this Thanksgiving. We have plans for a day hike in Boulder on Black Friday, but after eating everything I see the previous day, I might just put my hammock up and take a nap!” - Mary, Mississippi Park Connection

“My kids and I will go for a walk along the Mississippi River near our house. We like to search for animal footprints in the wet sand on the edge of the river. And, no trip to the river is complete without throwing some sticks and rocks into the river.” - Dan, Mississippi National River and Recreation Area

“I’m going to start a new tradition of post-turkey hiking with my loved ones. I’ll be celebrating Thanksgiving in Denver this year, and plan to drive up to Rocky Mountain National Park the next day to go hiking.” - Alora, Mississippi Park Connection

We hope you'll choose to #OptOutside too this Black Friday, and give thanks for life's most precious gift of all - nature. See you out there!

Monday, October 24, 2016

Dan The Tree Man

Dan Wattenhofer, GreenCorps Member and Urban Forestry Specialist, Mississippi Park Connection
Hi there!

My name is Dan Wattenhofer and I am the new urban forestry specialist and Greencorps member at Mississippi Park Connection, and I’m pleased to be here! For the next year, I’ll be working with the vast ash tree population within the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area.

I grew up Champlin, Minnesota, right near the northern boundary of the Mississippi River and Recreation Area. My friends and I spend a lot of time canoeing and biking around the Coon Rapids Dam area and I think that where my connection to the river first started. I attended St. John’s University and graduated in 2014 with a degree in Political Science. After graduating, I went to work as an arborist and climber at Rainbow Tree Companies, a tree care company that works throughout twin city metro area. During my time as an arborist, I really developed a passion for trees and all the benefits that they can provide. Some of my favorite areas to work in back then were along the river gorge area where the fall colors are even more brilliant from 60 feet up in a tree.

In my free time I volunteer at the local fire department, mill logs, climb, canoe, and wander around breweries asking what stouts are on tap.

Here at the Park Connection, my yearlong project will be assessing the state of the threatened ash tree population throughout the river corridor and working with our many partners to identify successful emerald ash borer management plans, develop criteria and prioritize stands for management, and determine best adaptation strategies for the potential loss of ash stands. Additionally, a good deal of my work will include identifying the impacts that the diminishing ash population will have on things such as the loss of recreational value at places of interest, loss of trees as a means of carbon storage, effects on soil erosion, and potential implications for wildlife.

I am excited to be a member of the team and get my project up and running! See you out there!

Minnesota GreenCorps is an AmeriCorps program, hosted by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency.

Wednesday, August 10, 2016

Celebrating the NPS Centennial Through Art

Alora K. Jones, Marketing & Communications Associate, Mississippi Park Connection

We at the connection have always held a deep appreciation for artists and the ways in which their work brings our national parks to life. Art has always been a part of the National Park Service story, from Ansel Adams to the Project Art for Nature (PAN) collaborative, artists have always played a crucial role in telling the story of America’s Best Idea.

Over the course of this summer, we have been so incredibly fortunate to see so many local artists working to capture the grandeur of the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area - and we encourage all of you to get out and experience your park from an artist’s perspective!

America’s River
An exhibition of paintings by Pennsylvania artist Thomas Paquette, America’s River is a collection of stunning oil and gouache paintings that celebrate one of nation’s greatest treasures: the Mississippi River.
Photo credit: Groveland Gallery
Thomas Paquette is a longtime visitor and lover of national parks throughout the country, and created these paintings to celebrate the Centennial of the National Park Service and the national park that runs through our Twin Cities. Check out this exhibit at the Groveland Gallery through August 13.

Project Art for Nature
A collaborative of about 25 local artists and illustrators, PAN chooses individual natural areas in Minnesota and Wisconsin to focus on capturing. Participating artists visit the sites regularly over a three-year cycle, resulting in creative responses to seasonal and cumulative changes in the landscape.

Photo credit: Project Art for Nature (PAN) 
In “Tributaries of Earth and Water: An Exhibition Celebrating Our National Parks,” PAN features about 50 pieces celebrating our waterways, forests and prairies. See this exhibit at the AZ Gallery through September 18 – a portion of sales will benefit Mississippi Park Connection!

Seeing Nature
A joint effort between Mississippi Park Connection and Mia, Seeing Nature is part exhibition and part guerilla art! To celebrate the new exhibit at Mia “Seeing Nature: Landscape Masterworks from the Paul G. Allen Family Collection,” 19 museum-style frames have been placed throughout the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area.

Photo credit: @rachel_six12 

Find all 19 frames using this map, and share your masterpieces on Instagram with us using #parkconnection and #seeingnature. Then head down to Mia to see the exhibition – now through September 18!

Third Thursday

As part of the Seeing Nature project – Mia has invited us to help host their Third Thursday event in August.
Photo credit: Mia 
Come down to the Minneapolis Institute of Art on August 18 where you can see the Seeing Nature exhibit for free, try your hand at painting en plein air, strike a post in the photobooth, and enjoy live music from Ben Lubeck of Farewell Milwaukee!

River City Revue
Photo credit: Jeremy Messersmith 
A series of on-river social events each summer, River City Revue aims to connect people to the Mississippi River through live music, storytelling, history, and art.

While visual artists seem to get most of the recognition for telling the story of national parks, we’re very excited to be working with local musician Jeremy Messersmith and spoken-word artists from Word Sprout to put on this program.

Each revue brings to life a different theme, presenting diverse perspectives on our Great River. Join us on September 8 and discover your river! 

No matter what your favorite medium is, there’s an opportunity out there for you to ring in the National Park Service Centennial with local artists who love this park as much as you do! Celebrate the natural magnificence of the national park in our backyard, and the wonderful artists who work to capture this beauty for the enjoyment of everyone.

Thursday, July 28, 2016

We've Got A New Intern!

Maya Swope, Volunteer Events & Engagement Intern, Mississippi Park Connection

Hello, everyone! My name is Maya Swope, and I am the new Volunteer Events and Engagement Intern at Mississippi Park Connection. I’m so incredibly excited to be joining this wonderful team at our national park!
I recently finished my sophomore year at Macalester College in Saint Paul, where I am majoring in Environmental Studies and Geography. Originally from New Hampshire, I grew up hiking and canoeing in the mountains and lakes that surrounded my rural home. Now, as a Saint Paul resident, I treasure the urban park that runs through our cities for its beauty and accessibility. I never knew I could live in a city and still be able to visit such beautiful green spaces!

Here at Mississippi Park Connection, our summer volunteer season is already in full swing-- and I’ve had so much fun helping to lead restoration projects throughout the park. During my first two months with the organization, I have learned so much about native and invasive plants, visited some of the most interesting and beautiful sites in the area, and worked with many a group of awesome volunteers. One of my favorite things to do in our park is to visit Coldwater Spring-- the prairie is blooming beautifully this time of year! I am excited to continue in this position until December, and hope to see you out in the park!

Saturday, July 16, 2016

MISS Throwback: Harriet Island

Katharine Baldwin, Volunteer, Mississippi National River and Recreation Area
MISS Throwback is a collaborative project in honor of the NPS Centennial. We asked volunteers to write about the last 100 years of the Mississippi River in the Twin Cities. This project was coordinated by Ranger Kathy and Centennial Volunteer Ambassador Quinn.
Harriet Island In the late 1800s, Harriet Island was envisioned as the center of the green, interconnected city of St. Paul. The land had been given to the citizens of St. Paul in 1899 by the city’s Commissioner of Health, Dr. Justus Ohage, who believed that "cleanliness and healthy outdoor exercise" were "absolutely necessary to the maintenance of good public health". With this dedication, the land was developed into a recreational area, complete with a playground, band pavilion, zoo, and public baths. The public baths alone drew over 15,000 people per year in the 1910s, and the city hosted celebrations every Fourth of July. During these events, the city would give each child “a small basket containing sandwiches, doughnuts, an orange, candy, a package of cracker-jacks, a paper napkin, and a paper drinking cup”, creating the vision of an inclusive, interconnected city.

Harriet Island on Fourth of July, St. Paul (1904)

Photo Credit: Minnesota Historical Society

Despite the promise and popularity of the waterfront, sewage in the river was worsening as the population grew. The city’s first sewers had been installed between 1890 and 1900 to improve public health, but they fed directly into the Mississippi river, detracting from the public health of those near the river. At this point, steamboats were used to transport supplies up and down the Mississippi River, and economic prospects led to the building of the St. Anthony lock and dam in Minneapolis 1917. Despite the good intentions, water quality worsened as human waste collected in thick rafts due to controlled water flow, particularly in the spring, when the waste was usually flushed out. Furthermore, the Minneapolis flour mills began dumping flour dust into the river, creating “dough balls” that added to the stench and pollution. “By the early 1920s, three million cubic yards of sewage and scum fouled the river” and, after periods of major flooding, people living in the river bottoms were given typhoid shots before being allowed to return to their homes.

The number of people choosing to spend time along the river dropped and in the 1920s the park fell into disuse. The city put effort into improving the island at the end of the decade; a road was built around the island and some trees and shrubs were planted, but the onset of the depression prevented further development. By 1935, the park was in such disarray that Dr. Ohage threatened to take it back. In 1938 St. Paul built its first wastewater treatment plant downstream of Harriet Island, which removed the stinking mats of floating sewage from the river and within four months, fish returned to the river. Water quality steadily improved until the 1950s, when the growing population exceeded the treatment plant’s limits and a second wastewater treatment plant was built in 1966. Further improvements were made as federal grant money from the 1972 Clean Water Act funded advances in infrastructure.

The topography of the Harriet Island was altered throughout the years surrounding 1950 with the filling of the channel between Harriet Island and the southern bank. Connecting the island to the shore removed the need for maintenance on the bridge and prevented sewage from stagnating in the channel. The time period also corresponds to the dredging of the river; the Mississippi had been dredged to 9 feet from St. Paul to New Orleans by the 1920s, and Small Boat Harbor, on the south side of Harriet Island was completed in 1949. All this sediment needed a depository, and the channel between Harriet Island and the shore was a convenient location.

Filling in the channel did not increase the popularity of the park. Steamboat captain William D. Bowell describes the area in 1969: “Harriet Island was an uninviting place… Only one poorly maintained road led onto the island. It dipped under the Wabasha Street Bridge, ran past a wooden walkway to Raspberry Island (then called Navy Island) and a graveyard of abandoned boats, and ended in a parking lot that was a rutted expanse of gravel”. Nonetheless, the Captain began giving steamboat tours that ran from the island in 1970, which brought more people to the area. These tours continue today.

In addition to Captain Bowell, politicians’ interest developed in restoring the “urban ecology” and providing natural oases within the city. The hope was that the river’s proximity to the cities would make it a popular destination, and therefore feed Minnesota’s tourism industry, at that point the state’s second largest industry, as opposed to the dying river transport industry. Several steps were made towards reviving the area. In 1976, Governor Wendell Anderson signed a “Critical Area” designation for the riverfront in the Twin Cities that would develop or modify land-use plans to block undesirable commercial and industrial development. Further interest developed when the possibility of federal government funding for a National Park surfaced in the 1980s. Minnesota’s representative Bruce Vento declared, “For too long the federal government has neglected to integrate the recreational uses of the Mississippi with necessary commercial uses. We want to take advantage of all the opportunities the river has to offer”. Yet economic forces remained at play, forcing a balance of the ecological and economic healths of the Upper Mississippi; the Upper Mississippi River Management Act of 1986 states, “To ensure the coordinated development and enhancement of the Upper Mississippi River system, it is hereby declared to be the intent of Congress to recognize that system as a nationally significant ecosystem and a nationally significant commercial navigation system”. The land around the river would be turned into parkland, but the river itself would remain a waterway controlled by dams.

The government approved funding for the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area in 1988. The park planned to build an interpretive center and boat launch on Harriet Island, and the Army Corps of Engineers began a project to protect the floodplain area by building a dike from Harriet Island to the Lafayette Bridge. Once all of the planned recreational sites were completed, the river was expected to draw 4.1 million visitors each year, who would invest $29 million in metro area businesses. The interpretive center on Harriet Island was never built, but today the National Park draws just over 110,000 visitors each year and the affiliated local and regional parks draw 7.9 million visitors per year.

The attention that the National Park brought to the river raised awareness about pollution, and by 1998, the river was the cleanest it had been in 50 years. Even so, barges and agriculture continued to add pollutants to the water, and a proposed metal shredding plant just downstream of downtown St. Paul caused residents concern. Citizens proclaimed: “Pollution from industry, city streets and farms still threatens the drinking water supplies of 18 million people… While once there were 150 native fish species, today there are only 30”. Their efforts encouraged sustainable development of the industries along the river, although they did not prevent the building of the metal shredder.

The residents of St. Paul also led to the major renovation of Harriet Island in 2000. With the goal to reestablish the Harriet Island as the city’s gathering place, a “River Walk paved with stepping stones funded by local families, a restored 1941 pavilion designed by Minnesota's first African-American architect, Clarence Wigington, and a terraced plaza leading directly down to the river” were built on the island. In 2002, the steel framed performing arts pavilion was finished with inspiration from the open lattice steel frame bridges that once spanned the river. Today the island is used year round as a boat landing and gathering place, but it hasn’t yet returned to the community center is was at the beginning of the 20th century. References Bowell, Wm. D. 1921. Ol’ Man River. Afton, MN: Afton Historical Society Press. “Corps Facts: St. Paul Small Boat Harbor.” 2012. US Army Corp of Engineers - St. Paul District. Public Affairs FS 30. Retrieved from “‘Critical Area’ designation for 80 miles of Mississippi riverfront in the Twin Cities.” October 19, 1976. St. Paul Pioneer Press: 14. Ecological Status and Trends of the Upper Mississippi River System 1998: A Report of the UMRR Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Element. 1998. USGS. Retrieved from Hammel, Bette. 2001. "A renaissance on the river in Saint Paul." Architectural Record 189(9): 65-66. Accessed December 6, 2015. Retrieved from Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, EBSCOhost. Hanmer, Lee F. 1912. “Progress of the Sane Fourth.” The Journal of Education. Trustees of Boston University 75(19): 515-516. “Harriet Island.” (n.d.). Mississippi National River and Recreation Area. National Park Service. US Department of the Interior. Retrieved from Martin, Frank Edgerton. April, 2001. “Saint Paul’s New Riverfront.” Urban Land: 56-61. Mill City Museum. 704 S 2nd St, Minneapolis, MN 55401. April 2, 2016. “Mississippi Feature: Pollution.” 2001. Center for Global Environmental Education. Hamline University. Retrieved from Minneapolis-Saint Paul Sanitary District. 1958. Pollution and Recovery Characteristics of the Mississippi River for the Period 1926-1955. Sanitary Engineering Report 110 S. “Mississippi Recreation.” August 14, 1986. Minneapolis Star Tribune: B4. Nelson, Paul. 2016. “Harriet Island.” Saint Paul Historical. Retrieved from Schmidt, Andrew J. 2002. “Pleasure and Recreation for the People: Planning St. Paul’s Como Park.” In Minnesota History. Minnesota Historical Society Press 58(1): 40-58. State of the Park Report for Mississippi National River and Recreation Area: Visitor Experience. 2016. National Park Service. US Department of the Interior. Retrieved from Thomma, Steven. September 16, 1987. “Mississippi Protection Bill Approved.” St. Paul Pioneer Press: 9A. “100+ Years of Water Quality Improvements in the Twin Cities: A chronology of significant events affecting water quality in the Mississippi River in the Twin Cities metropolitan area 1900-2007” [Pamphlet]. 2007. Metropolitan Council Environmental Services. Retrieved from